Interview and Book Recommendations by  Professor Roger Allen, Professor of Arabic and Comparative Literature, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA USA

by Sue Braunschweig






Right: center Naguib Mahfouz and right Prof Allen




First I want to say it’s extremely humbling to have a chance to ask you some questions and get your book recommendations from a “giant” in the field of Arab Literature.  

BIO:  In 1968 Roger Allen emigrated from his native-city of Bristol in England to the United States and took a position in Arabic language and literature at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia(a position he still holds as Professor of Arabic and Comparative Literature). This position is actually the oldest professorial post in Arabic (as a separate language in its own right) in the United States, dating back to 1788. At the university he has taught many generations of students, now including some of the most distinguished members of the younger generation of specialists in Arabic literature. (source:


Why is it important that readers read Arab literature in translation?

Because literature has always be able to say the otherwise unsayable, particularly in contemporary cultures where any kind of alternative discourse is regarded by the authorities as being  inimical and therefore in need of suppression.  In a world in which “news” and “facts” are completely manipulatable (and more often than not manipulated), literature becomes the most effective mode of insight into another culture and the values of the people  who live within it and try to reflect their values and concerns through the medium of literary genres.

How did you become interested in Arabic literature?

I went to Oxford University to study Classics initially, but switched to Arabic after one year. I was almost immediately attracted to its literary tradition.  When Mustafa (M.M.) Badawi arrived in 1963 as the first ever specialist in modern Arabic literature, I began my studies with him and went on to complete the university’s first doctorate in the subject in 1968 (on the early modern Egyptian writer, Muhammad al-Muwaylihi–subsequently published as a book: A PERIOD OF TIME).

How did you get the idea to translate Nagib Mahfouz.  I understand that you were the original translators of Nagib Mahfouz.  Did you have the opportunity to meet him? Can you remember your meetings? Tell us what happened.

Actually translation was his idea, at our first meeting in 1967. I had accepted an invitation to go to see him at his office in the Egyptian Cinema Administration so I could talk to him about my dissertation topic (see above).  Among other things, I told him that I liked a story that he had recently published (in the newspaper AL-AHRAM).  He asked me if I would like to translate it, and, of course, I said YES!  I made a list of the works I would like to translate, and he signed it.

My first published translation of his works (done with an Egyptian colleague, Akef Abadir) was the short-story collection, GOD’S WORLD (1973), which was mentioned by the Nobel Prize Committee in 1988.

Actually two people had translated MAHFOUZ into English before me: Phillip Stewart had submitted his translation of CHILDREN OF GEBELAWI (now published) as a BPhil thesis at Oxford in 1962, and Trevor Le Gassick’s translation of MIDAQQ ALLEY [he spells it “MIDAQ,” with one “Q” instead of two!] came out in Beirut in 1966.

Over the decades I met Mahfouz many times; my favorite time was when I went to his Tuesday night session with his friends (including other novelists–Jamal al-Ghitani and Yusuf al-Qa`id, the poet, `Abd al-rahman al-Abnudi, and others) on a houseboat moored on the Giza side of the River Nile (I’m attaching a photograph of one of those occasions, the last time I saw him before his death). Whenever I came, he always reminded me that I had sent him a copy of GOD’S WORLD in 1973 and it had reached him on his birthday!  Above all, he had a terrific sense of humor, and was always ready with “one-liners”…


Which of your translations are you most proud of?

My favorite is ENDINGS, a translation of a novel  by `Abd al-rahman Munif, but I also like my most recent MAHFOUZ ones: KHAN AL-KHALILI and THE FINAL HOUR, and the works of Moroccan authors, Salim Himmich and Ahmad al-Tawfiq.


Are the number of translations limited by a shortage of translators or by the market or other reasons?

A combination of both, I think. Certainly there are now more translators than ever before 9and they are better qualified), but I suspect that “the market” (and in particular the miserable degree of interest among anglophone readers in non-Western literatures in general–when contrasted, say, with the equivalent degree of interest in a country like France or Italy) is primarily responsible for the volume of translation from Arabic that appears.  The situation with regard to pre-modern Arabic literature is even worse…


What should be translated that isn’t yet?

If we’re talking about the pre-modern era, the answer is: almost anything and everything.  For the modern period, much more drama and colloquial poetry.  In fiction, the works of Gulf writers, Tunisian writers (and Maghribi writers in general).  Specifically, more of the works of the Libyan writer, Ibrahim al-Koni, and some Syrian novels, particularly those by Haydar Haydar.


Who are the Arab “writers to watch” in your estimation?

in Lebanon, Rabi` Jabir; in Syria, Haydar Haydar (not all that young, but overlooked); almost any younger female authors.


Fiction or Memoir Recommendations: 3 to 5 each

For greater understanding of women in the Arab World

1.  DUNYAZAD by May Telmissany

2.  THE LOCUST AND THE BIRD by Hanan al-Shaykh

3.  Almost anything by Fatima Mernissi

4.  THE WILES OF MEN by Salwa Bakr

5.  MY GRANDMOTHER’S CACTUS, stories collected by Marilyn Booth


Arabian Gulf Literature

1.  ENDINGS by `Abd al-rahman Munif

2   CITIES OF SALT, THE TRENCH, VARIATIONS ON NIGHT AND DYA by `Abd l-rahman Munif: three of the five novels in his quintet, CITIES OF SALT

3  THE HOSTAGE by Zayd Mutee` Dammaj

4  VOICES OF CHANGE ed. AbuBaker Bagader).  Saudi Short stories


North Africa

1  FOR BREAD ALONG by Muhammad Shukri

2  THE GAME OF FORGETTING by Muhammad Barrada

3  THE POLYMATH by Salim Himmich

4  ABU MUSA”S WOMEN NEIGHBORS by Ahmad al-Tawfiq

5  THE EARTHQUAKE by Al-Tahir Wattar



hard to pick, there’s so much!

1  anything by Mahfouz, of course–and his complete works are now available in English from AUC Press

2  Al-ZAYNI BARAKAT by Jamal al-Ghitani

3  AZAZIL by Yusuf Zaidan

4  GRANADA by Radwa Ashour

5  NO ONE SLEEPS IN ALEXANDRIA by Ibrahim Abdel  Meguid


Middle East

1 GATE OF THE SUN by Elias Khoury

2  THE LONG WAY BACK by Fuad al-Tikirli

3  SUN ON A CLOUDY DAY by Hanna Mina

4  DEAR MR KAWABATA by Rashid al-Da`if

5  WILD THORNS by Sahar Khalifeh


Where do you suggest readers of Arabic literature find new books?

By subscribing to the excellent (London, England-based)  journal, B ANIPAL.  It carries the latest translations, details about authors, and reviews of the latest English translations of Arabic literature.


What translation/projects are you working on now?



Salim Himmich, A MUSLIM SUICIDE (Syracuse UP)

Jurji Zaidan, THE CONQUEST OF ANDALUSIA (Zaidan Foundation, via AMAZON)



Ibrahim al-Koni, SLEEPLESS EYE (Environmental aphorisms), Syracuse UP

Ahmad al-Tawfiq, MOON AND HENNA TREE (UTexas Press)



Salim Himmich, MY TORTURESS

Hassan Najmi,  GERTRUDE (about Gertrude Stein)



Muhammad Zafzaf, A collection of 46 short stories

————————, THE ELUSIVE FOX (novel)



Sa`dallah Wannus, SOIREE FOR THE FIFTH OF JUNE (a play, 1968)


Beyond reading Arab literature in translation, what other steps can readers take to learn about the Arab World or bring greater world understanding (organizations, etc)

Outside of the world of academia, it’s very hard; this country and the Western world in general has a very ambivalent attitude towards anything Arab–to put it mildly.  Universities across the country have Middle East Centers that are mandated to offer “outreach” to the local communities.  I think the major push has to be in schools.  Another avenue is support for, and participation in, the various programs (seminars, etc.) offered by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH).


Now that the classroom is potentially world wide do you know of interesting courses in Arab literature in translation that are available online?

There’s nothing online.  Plenty of Arabic LANGUAGE courses, but nothing on literature (at least, yet…).


Thank you Professor Allen for your contribution to the field and bringing us so many translations.


NOTE FROM SUE : UW Milwaukee has an online class Fall 2012:

350: Topics in Comparative Literature 3cr (U/G)

Topic: Arabic Women Writers in Translation Class Number: 26711, Lec202, ONLINE (Professor Seymour-Jorn)


I find this book pretty haunting because of Noora’s gender contraints, arranged marriage, lack of choices due to her family’s lack of money and influence, and in the end her choice. Perhaps it deserves five stars and I am judging it on my reaction to the characters choices in the plot rather than on the writing itself.

In Noora’s childhood in the rural area Musandam penisula of Oman nothing was easy for her family financially but she had quite a lot of freedom to be herself up to the point where her father has become mentally ill and her brother becomes head of the family. There were some very interesting pieces here, the visits from the matchmaker, advice from her mother, local people’s understanding of madness, etc. Noora is deeply loved by a young man who she can’t marry, something that many women can relate to, the lost soul mate.  At one point she and her brother go to inquire to a witch/healer about their father’s health.  I found that an especially interesting scene.  From here everything quickly changes for Noora and she is sent off to live as the third wife to a middle age man.   The person in the household who becomes most like a friend to her is a slave girl.  Here in that family she comes to understand deception, power, family politics, and grows up quickly.   The ending for me shows how far she has come in just two years.

The descriptions of landscape and character portrayals are rich here.

Last year I vacationed in Dubai and it was interesting to see how life was quite different in the city but some things are the same like the Abra rides on Dubai creek and the souks surrounding that area. I visited the historic house, the Sheikh Saeed Al Maktoum House and with that I could easily imagine the sort of big, traditional house with windtowers and many rooms where the pearl merchant of the story lives.  The social life of even the 1950s feels remote to the amazing modern city with tanilizingly beautiful skyscrapers and flower gardens everywhere.

This is an important book and I am glad that Maha Gargash wrote it and that my friend recommended it to me.  As a cultural insider Ms. Gargash is a perfect guide on the journey that is the plot of this novel.

Please share your book recommendations for other books that are similiar to this.

The Sand Fish: A Novel from Dubai

Written by Sue Braunschweig

Today on Mother’s Day here in the United States, I am thinking about mothering, the place we have in society by virtue of being in this collective group of mothers and the very real economic challenges many mothers face.

Women struggle economically for many reasons in the world.  Working in social services I am well versed in the reasons for women’s poverty in the United States .  The reasons range from lack of basic education, learning disabilities, mental illness as a result of being a victim of abuse, illness, social programs that erode rather than build self confidence, family size, desertion by spouse or boyfriend, unwed mothers, drugs, other family members taking advantage of the woman, the premature death of their own parents, growing up in the foster care system, etc.etc.

I have spent the greater part of the morning reading about courageous women in the Middle East and North Africa who are taking on unpopular causes like helping unwed mothers and those whose husbands are too ill to provide or who have deserted them by  assisting them with basic needs and training. Often these spirited women are directors of non profits groups and face criticism from some in their societies. I have read this morning about a woman named, Aicha Channa in Casablanca Morocco and a society called, Ihsan Charity in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Government, in addition to non profits, is playing a leading role in helping women through offering training programs, for example in Saudi Arabia.

On this day I think of women all over the world who are searching for training programs to provide them enough economic security to care for their families.  I pray for the woman whose options are confined by her own level of confidence, inability to take a risk, lack of information or lack of support from her family members.

In my work in workforce development I help men and women and love to ask them the question:  “What is your dream job… your biggest career goal?”  Eighty percent of the time I get a hesitant stare, but I know I am connecting because it’s a stare deep into my eyes. What I say next is, “What would be your biggest goal if you could study anything you want without worry for how to finance it or constraints on your time?”  Sometimes I need to push a little bit further with some women with the question, “What did you use to want to be before you had a family?”  Then I hear about their long stifled goals to be a nurse, or a social worker, doctor or business owner.  They don’t elaborate much and I can feel the dead energy of a deflated dream.  Sometimes life and especially life in the low economic rungs of American society have a way of squelching those dreams.  I explain to them that we don’t have the funding to get anyone to their loftiest goal, but very often we can get them to that first “rung” on the ladder, that we call a “career path”.  Just realizing that you are at the beginning of the path is empowering.  For example, as a nursing assistant they will get the chance to move up to higher levels and closer to their goal.  In the United States part of the difficulty is in not knowing where to go for direction and funding which is where our Job Center system comes in.

Blessed is the family that encourages dreams, the parent that builds up and not rips down and who affirms the child by showing their pleasure in seeing their child when the child enters the room.   That confidence is what will propel them when life gets hard.  That kernel will give them the courage to build their skills, finish their GEDs or BS or MS or PHD or learn a trade.  That kernel will show them that they have a place in the world and an obligation to help make this world a better place.     Think about what you could achieve, what I could achieve, your daughter, or your niece, your sister or your mother  if our energy was unbridled.

Happy Mother’s Day World!

By: Sue Braunschweig

I have been watching the developments in Art in the Middle East and specifically Saudi Arabia by internet.

I remember the  day that I received my  first carpet clearly.  My now ex-husband and I were in a big and beautiful showroom in Istanbul and carpets were being flung open one on top of the next in a dizzying burst of color and pattern.   Truth be told  Jason  said that they only reason he bought me a carpet in Istanbul was because I had such a migraine. I guess he felt sorry for me. Thank God for that migraine!  I proudly carried that heavy bundle home on the plane though I was sure my arm was going to become completely disjointed from my shoulder.

In later trips to Morocco, my interest in handcrafted arts and crafts  grew as I was explosed the souks and walked into shop after shop of colorful lamps, pillows, leather goods, hexagonal wood tables with intricately painted designs, Tuareg jewelry and of course carpets.

When I was planning my trip first and only trip to Cairo, Egypt in January 2010 I had read in my trusty Thomas Cook and National Geographic guidebooks that The Museum of Islamic Art was scheduled to reopen  by the end of 2009.   They had already been renovating since 2003.  It was unfortunatley not reopened by the time of my trip.  That was a disappointment but I hope to visit it one day.

When researching my trip to Dubai last year I learned about  Art Dubai a huge international art fair held each March with participanting galleries from over thirty countries but again my dates didn’t work out. I did however buy three old Saudi bedouin silver rings from  a gallery in one of the malls.  More bedouin jewelry has since come my way by way of Ebay.

Those of you following this blog know I have a special interest in Saudi Arabia.  Since 2008  I have been following the news about the Edge of Arabia exhibit. The group of Saudi artists have exhibited in not only London, but also Berlin,Venice and Istanbul.   Just weeks ago they did  the “We have to talk” exhibit in Jeddah.

Most recently, just a day or two ago,  there was a one day exhibit of work by four female Saudi artists in Jeddah.   The exhibit was at the Hilton Hotel in Jeddah.

  • Hiyam Al-Khurdy is a Saudi artist whose work was inspired by ‘Makkah folklore and Islamic art”.  She paints in oil and uses a techique that makes them appear 3D.
  • Mariyam Sudayri paints on silk  and also exhibits  photography. In the article Sudayri reveals she is self taught.
  • Munira Abul Khail – painter
  • Wafa Hidaya – painter

Only one photo and some short descriptions of their art appeared in  I am interested to know  more about each woman. Here is a link to that article.  Please comment if you know of a book about Saudi women artist profiles or about their work, or can suggest artists or museums I should learn more about.

by Sue Braunschweig

In Dubai Wives ZvezdanaRashkovich delivers a trip to Dubai without the airline ticket and additional expenses for hotel and restaurant and that was just what I was looking for. Zvezdana introduces the reader to the glamorous and the gritty in the exotic desert city on the Arabian Gulf that she currently calls home.

In truth I am still mourning the fact that I couldn’t attend the Dubai Literary Festival this year where I had hoped to meet the author in person.  We have become Twitter friends within the last six months or so.  Plain and simple she lives in a really cool place.  This I know for a fact because I travelled to Dubai on vacation last year.  In my past life I was an expat wife in Hong Kong so I can relate to the life of some of her characters and circle of friendship among diverse types of women far from their native homelands and families.

After receiving the book I found that she had self-published and wondered why she took that road. Then I began to read.  I found that I was quickly sucked into the exotic and dangerous world she created.  There in the pages were the fancy shopping malls that I visited and adored.  There was the restaurant by the yacht club where I sat listening to the waves crash.  There was the high spire of the Burj Dubai towering over the city seemingly piercing the heavens.  In the pages I found again the glorious Palm where I got goose bumps on the double-decker tour bus ride I took as it drove us on the road that forms the “trunk” past condos and villas, a mosque and finally at the tip the Atlantis Hotel.  I could again glimpse the Indian and Pakistani neighborhood where my hotel was located.  I was there while India won the world cup and I remember the electricity of those days in the clogged streets near my hotel and the ecstatic shop keepers in the gold souk.

Zvezdana’s characters welcomed me into the expat life that I of course didn’t get to participate in during my short visit to her city.  Here were belly dancers from Eastern Europe, a young Moroccan ripped from her home and into the sex trade by opportunist “relative”, businessmen caught in greed, expats who have lost touch with their humble beginnings, wealthy women, and an American convert to Islam who married a man with a secret.  It was a fascinating tour–like a friend who showed you around the good and the bad of her hometown and let you in on the secrets of her friends.

Pacing of the book was fast.  Within the first twenty pages I was hooked and fully engrossed in the strange tale set in Dubai.

The only “flaw” in the book is a handful of uncorrected typos that easily would have been cleaned up by an editor if she had had the benefit of a full staff at a traditional publishing house.

Dubai Wives is a strong first novel by Zvezdana Rashkovich.  She is currently working on a second. ‘Africa in the way I dance’ set in 1970’s Sudan where she grew up on farm by the Nile.

This afternoon I watched the documentary, Saudis in America, by Fahmi Farouk Farahat, 2008.  The filmmaker introduces us to his friends and family and they answer some tough questions about their thoughts on women’s issues, Americans misconceptions about Saudis and their country, treatment of Saudis in America post 9/11, and life in both countries.  I recommend it to anyone with an interest in modern Saudi Arabia and women in Saudi Arabia. It is warm and informative and especially interesting to me are the interviews with women as I have not met many Saudi women.

Saudis in America